Category Archives: development applications

Residential front fences

Local municipal Councils produce development control plans (DCPs) which act as background for their determinations about development in their local government areas.

These DCPs contain information about various matters, from floor space ratios to percentages of sites required to be ‘deep soil plantable’. They also contain planning and design guidelines about residential fencing – so as to ensure that private property boundary fences (facing both the street and other properties) don’t physically or visually overwhelm the streetscape or neighbour’s lots.

In my landscape architectural and heritage work, I’m very often talking clients away from their desire to create ‘fortified’ boundary walls around their properties. I discuss the many benefits of not enveloping a site with modern day bulwarks, getting clients to consider the streetscape as-a-whole and benefits to passers-by of being able to appreciate the exquisite garden they are just about to install. A ‘portcullised’ mindset can, however, be hard to dislodge.

Whilst Council control guidelines are pretty strict – for both the good of the physical and visual suburban environment – certain aspects of new developments do slip past those guidelines from time to time.

I saw a good example of this recently, on a property where a developer had knocked down a lovely cottage to build a much larger residence. In sync with the new over-sized house came what could only be described as fortifications facing the two streets which the property fronts.


The subject fencing (as seen above) is c.2.5 metres high and totally overwhelms the abutting footpath and adjoining property. Alarmingly, the fence’s scale is actually quite in keeping with the massing of the residence, a house whose compliance with the local Council’s DCP on a range of matters is questionable. That’s another issue. The subject local Council’s DCP says that front fences should generally not exceed 1.2 metres in height and contains various other objectives, including avoiding adverse impacts. Clearly, controls regarding fencing were not rigorously applied to this development.

One contributing factor, which is common to many suburban areas of Sydney, is that most residential streets contain a total mishmash of fencing styles. It’s therefore very difficult for Councils to enforce a design typology unique to a certain locale.

A broader aspect worth mentioning, regarding front fences, is the topic of ‘good design’ – so often overlooked in fencing treatments. In the case of the property discussed above, the architecture of the front fence is left sorely wanting. A nearby fence of a new apartment complex (seen below) shows how a reasonably low front fence/wall, in a modernist style with articulation, can add an interesting visual element to the streetscape, whilst not being in conflict with the street or adjoining properties.


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Residential design – 5 tips for getting the most out of your Landscape Architect

There are many reasons to engage a landscape architect to prepare a design for the grounds of your house. The most likely is either that your local Council requires you to have one as part of your development application (DA) / construction certificate (CC) application or that you would just like to add beauty, utility and value to your property with a revitalisation of the garden.

If you plan to put in a substantive development application to Council, it’s likely that they will require a landscape plan to be submitted at the DA stage. For smaller development proposals, a landscape plan may only need to be prepared at the CC stage – a requirement that is often highlighted in a condition of consent approval.

Whatever your reason for getting a landscape plan done for your residence, here are 5 things to remember –

1. Ideas and inspiration. Your landscape architect is going to ask you questions about ideas and requirements you have for the grounds of your property. In addition to coming to terms with the actual brief of the job, they’ll likely want to know things like how you imagine using your property’s outdoor spaces, your mindset about plants and gardens, what stylistic things you are attracted to and whether you like formality or things being a bit rough around the edges. Take a bit of time to think about the above points before you meet your landscape architect – this preparation will help both to guide the design and to ensure that your needs and likes are met.

2. Input and feedback. After giving them your brief, your landscape architect will (if they haven’t already done so) analyse the site and other requirements and then formulate a concept plan for your property. They would then meet with you to present this concept. This is very important, as it provides the opportunity for you to be part of the design process, understand the outcomes of the scheme and tweak it, if required. Changes to a concept plan might eventuate because of ideas you’ve had since your original consultation or because of previously unconsidered matters that arise based on the landscape architect’s presentation. Ideally, you’d have another design discussion with your landscape architect prior to the finalisation of the scheme.

3. Grab the opportunity. If you need to engage a landscape architect as part of a DA or CC submission, I recommend you think of their engagement and the plan they produce as more than just a quick ‘box ticking’ exercise for your local Council. Instead, use the opportunity of the landscape architect’s engagement to have meetings with them and provide your own input and ideas (as above). The aesthetic and functional outcomes for your property will be all the better for landscape planning at the earliest stages of your development thinking.

4. Research your neighbourhood. I encourage clients, as do local Councils, to think about their properties as part of their environs. Regularly in residential design, allotments are treated like islands, with little stylistic reference to neighbouring lots or the streetscape. A good landscape architect, with reference to Council planning documents, will consider things like predominant garden styles in your immediate neighbourhood, mature tree species near your site and matters like how your front fencing selection might visually impact a streetscape.

5. Have a starting point. Provide your landscape architect with a detailed site survey plan. As with architectural design, having an accurate base plan to work from is vital. A detailed survey plan essentially includes the next level up of information from a survey contained in a property transfer. The detailed survey plan would have things like existing trees, paths, service lines and levels information plotted onto it.


Ari Anderson is a registered landscape architect and heritage consultant and undertakes residential, commercial and institutional landscape design projects for clients in Sydney and surrounds.




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One thing you must know before starting your next development application

If you’re undertaking a substantial modification to your house or proposing to knock it down and rebuild, you’ll need to submit a development application or similar approval application to Council.

As part of the development assessment process, Council or the private certifier will look at the floor space ratio (FSR) of the application – the ratio of a building’s total floor area to the size of the land upon which it is built. They will check to make sure that the development is in compliance with FSR controls and assorted other building controls that relate to that lot.

Generally speaking, the total floor area includes the internal area of all habitable rooms across every level of a building, but does not include open terraces or balconies.

An allied matter to FSRs is that a certain percentage of a site must be landscaped area.

Different Councils have different regulations regarding landscape area percentages, and these percentages also vary for the type of development being proposed.

An important site planning aspect to look out for in the wording of Council policies for landscape area percentages is whether the percentages they stipulate are just for ‘landscape area’ (which may be able to include hard paved areas and pools) or if they say, for example, ‘deep soil landscape area’ (which are areas that must be able to be planted).

For example, Lane Cove Council states that:

“For most types of development in Lane Cove, a percentage of the total site area is required to be ‘landscaped areas’. The ‘landscaped areas’ includes private open space and swimming pools, but does not include paved areas such as driveways……”,

……..but one of their charts – below – expresses ‘landscaped area’ as being ‘deep soil’ only.

landscape area lane cove council

Sutherland Council states that:

“The required landscape area of a site can be constrained by a control specifying the minimum required landscaped area defined as a percentage of the total site area”.

 Their zonal chart – below – just describes ‘landscape area’, without referring to ‘deep soil’ plantable area.

Sutherland landscape area percentages

Make sure your architect or project manager is aware of the landscape space controls that relate to your property. If in doubt about Council’s terminology for inclusions and exclusions within a minimum percentage figure, check with Council’s landscape officer.

Ari Anderson is a landscape architect, specialising in residential design and planning. To engage Ari to design a garden that will inspire and add value to your property, contact him at or call him on 0412133472

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If you propose a development on your land, most local Councils will require a landscape plan to be submitted as part of the development application (DA) documentation.

A good DA landscape plan will not only propose well-considered new landscape treatments for the grounds of a property, but also record existing mature specimens and any other plantings deemed worthy of retention. The incorporation of recommendations for existing plantings on a site, at DA stage, is important. It shows Council and/or the private certifier that building works have not been proposed in isolation of their surrounds. It also shows that an owner or developer understands the intent of guidelines in Council local environmental plans (LEPs) and development control plans (DCPs), as well as the aim of a Council landscape code and tree preservation order.

When a DA is approved, it will normally come with a series of conditions of consent – some of which will relate to landscape matters of the site. A DA landscape plan (and for that matter the surveyor’s and architect’s plans) needs to show mature plantings that exist on an allotment. Even if such plans didn’t, Council’s consent document would still list and provide restrictions / approvals for such specimens. Key specimens will be shown in Council tables under such headings as ‘plants to be retained’, ‘plants which can be transplanted’ and ‘plants which can be removed’. These determinations are hopefully in accordance with suggestions on the landscape plan.

Depending on the size, location or significance of a specimen on or abutting a development site, Council may put a monetary bond on a certain planting – which is held until the occupational certificate phase of the development. This is basically done to incentivise a property developer to not accidentally back a bulldozer into some greenery they would prefer wasn’t there.

Even if bonds are not put on individual specimens in a DA approval and a property owner doesn’t risk financial loss through plant removal, they remain bound by the conditions of a local council’s tree preservation order. Lack of adherence to tree preservation orders doesn’t make certifiers or Councils particularly happy and can cause complications at the construction certificate (CC) phase.

Often, a revised landscape plan is required to be submitted at the CC approval stage – one that takes into account building approval matters and any site issues where more resolution is sought by the approval authority. If mature specimens, which were present on site at the DA stage, have been removed by the property owner between DA and CC, specific points in the conditions of consent document will be unable to be met.

Such an occurrence can jeopardise the ‘smooth’ progress of documentation at the CC stage. The certifying authority could insist that mature specimens removed from the site without approval be replaced – which is often a hugely costly undertaking.

So, if you have a long delay between your DA and CC stages, beware using a scorched-earth policy with the grounds of your site. If you do propose garden changes in this intervening period, remember that you had a landscape plan drawn at DA stage. It was hopefully a scheme you were happy with at the time it was prepared, so try to abide by the principles of that design. Aesthetics aside, sticking to the intent of the DA landscape design in any pre CC-stage garden redevelopment will result in fewer complications when that stage comes around.


A garden – pre development application (DA) submission


The same garden – pre construction certificate (CC) submission, the owners having failed to follow the landscape plan as proposed in the DA. The obvious major removal works were done between DA and CC (in this case a five year period). The total remake included the unapproved removal of several stately mature specimens, originally proposed for retention and listed as such in the conditions of consent. The client also failed to recognise that the landscape plan prepared for them at DA stage was an integral part of the planning for their site and not merely a box-ticking exercise.

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